Every tooth consists of three different layers. The outermost and hardest layer is enamel, the second layer is dentin. The third is pulp, which is where the live tissue and nerve of each tooth is located.
If for any reason the pulp space is exposed to the outside, the tissue becomes contaminated and eventually infected. The exposure of pulp happens in many circumstances, such as when you have a large cavity or a fractured tooth. In these cases, the treatment of choice is usually root canal.
Root canal treatment is the process of going inside the pulp space and removing all of the infected, dead tissue. The space is then disinfected and sealed with special materials. Root canal treatments are performed with advanced techniques and materials, making them far more comfortable and much faster. After root canal treatment is complete, your restorative dentist will usually place a crown on your tooth to safeguard it against fracture.